To eat or not to eat, that is the question: How can health psychology practitioners help people manage food safety?

Posted Posted in Automaticity, Habit, Self-efficacy

By Barbara Mullan, Curtin University, Australia

Extent of the problem

Every year, one in 10 people worldwide (approximately 600 million people) become ill after eating contaminated food, and as many as 420,000 people die. There are vast geographical differences in where these instances occur, with African, South-East Asian, and Eastern Mediterranean regions bearing the highest burden of foodborne disease (further detail about the foodborne disease burden by region can be found here). In addition to these geographical differences, there are also vast differences in the types of agents that are responsible for foodborne disease (e.g., viruses, bacteria, parasites).

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帮助孕妇戒烟:分享来自英国的最佳实践

Posted Posted in Financial Incentives, Smoking cessation

由英国东安格利亚大学的菲利克斯·诺顿(Felix Naughton)撰稿

25–50%的女性吸烟者会在发现自己怀孕后戒烟。但是为什么剩下的人在怀孕期间仍在吸烟呢?

难道她们不知道怀孕期间吸烟有害吗?他们通常是知道的。我们在英国进行的一项研究发现99%的孕妇(包括了想要戒烟和不想戒烟的)都在一定程度上同意“怀孕期间吸烟会对宝宝造成严重伤害”这一说法,约75%的孕妇非常或极度同意这一说法。但12周后,只有不到10%的人戒掉了。尽管持有强烈“伤害信念”的人在怀孕期间尝试戒烟的可能性更大,但似乎并没有增加成功的机会

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改善初级保健中简短饮酒建议的传达效果:来自咨询双方的观点

Posted Posted in Assessment, Brief behavioural intervention, Goal setting, Habit, Planning

由英国纽卡斯尔大学的艾米·奥唐奈(Amy O’Donnell)撰稿

最近在欧洲某些地区,尤其是在年轻人中,饮酒的水平下降了。但是,过量饮酒仍然是健康不良和早逝的主要危险因素。给被判定为重度饮酒者的患者提供简短的饮酒建议,尤其当该建议的传达者是初级保健医师(例如全科医生)或护士时,可以帮助减少人们的饮酒量饮酒的简短建议包括了简短的、循证的、结构化的对话,对话的目的是激发和支持患者去考虑改变饮酒行为以减少它带来的伤害风险。我们仍未完全确定这些对话的关键因素,但提供有关患者饮酒量的个性化反馈,并鼓励他们自我监控饮酒,似乎是其中特别有效的部分

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Staying well while staying at home

Posted Posted in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Coping, Habit, Mental Health, Planning, Routines, Self-monitoring, SMART Goals

By Dr Federica Picariello and Professor Rona Moss-Morris, King’s College London, the UK.

Within weeks around the world, daily life dramatically changed, and uncertainty seized our future in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Beyond the immediate and urgent need to slow down the spread of COVID-19 through rapid and widespread behavioural change (i.e., self-isolation, social distancing, and quarantine), the impact on mental and physical wellbeing needs to be considered to allow early intervention and mitigate the longer-term consequences.

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How to maintain health behaviours long term?

Posted Posted in Habit, Motivation, Self-monitoring, Self-regulation

By Dominika Kwasnicka, SWPS University, Poland and University of Melbourne, Australia

The ultimate goal of health promotion programmes is to promote long-lasting change and health care professionals can play a role and help patients to improve their health outcomes and maintaining behaviour change. We know that health behaviour change is difficult to initiate and it can be even more challenging to maintain in the long term. One big question in health psychology is why maintenance is so difficult. 

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Stop being an ostrich! The benefits of helping people to monitor their progress

Posted Posted in Self-monitoring

By Thomas L. Webb, Department of Psychology, The University of Sheffield, the UK

How are you getting on with your goal to reduce the amount of sugar that you eat and lose 10kg? Chances are that you don’t really know – or even want to know. In situations like these, people tend to behave like ostriches and bury their heads in the sand, intentionally avoiding or rejecting information that would help them to monitor their goal progress. Research on this “ostrich problem” suggests that people often do not keep track of their progress (e.g., step on weighing scales, read the packets of food that they buy), in part, because doing so can make them feel bad about themselves – e.g., they realise that they weigh more than hoped and that they still consume too much sugar. However, theory and evidence suggest that keeping track of progress helps people to identify discrepancies between their current and desired states that warrant action. The implication is that avoiding monitoring makes it difficult to identify the need to act and the most appropriate way to do so. The ostrich problem therefore represents an opportunity for healthcare professionals (and others) to help people to monitor their progress and capitalise on the benefits of so doing. Perhaps not surprisingly then, we found good evidence that prompting people to monitor their progress helps people to achieve goals across a range of domains.

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行为科学对新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)大流行的洞察

Posted Posted in Communication

由爱尔兰经济社会研究所的肖恩·蒂蒙斯(Shane Timmons)撰稿

世界各国政府已动员起来设法控制新型冠状病毒的传播,但是个体的行为对控制的成功与否起到了至关重要的作用。我们——位于都柏林的爱尔兰社会经济研究所行为研究组——正致力于与爱尔兰卫生部合作,为他们提供应对新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行的信息。作为该工作的一部分,我们审阅了超过100篇科技论文, 并且已经开始测试向大众传播的最佳方式和提供与健康心理学从业者相关的课程。在我们的综述中,我们着眼于与三个方面相关的文献,这三个方面已成为多个国家公共卫生信息传递的基础:手部卫生,脸部触摸和隔离。我们也进一步拓展到了如何激励有益行为和在危机中有效沟通的相关文献。

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评估客户应对策略的重要性

Posted Posted in Assessment, Coping

由荷兰莱顿大学临床心理学系的纳迪亚·加涅夫斯基(Nadia Garnefski)和维维安·克拉伊(Vivian Kraaij)共同撰稿

罗伯(Rob)刚听说他自己患有HIV(负性事件)。 他认为自己应该为此负责(自责),并且他避免与朋友见面(退缩)。 这种情况使他很难过。当他坐在家里的时候,他不能停止思考自己的感受(沉思),并相信自己的遭遇是一场彻底的灾难(灾难化)。 因为他感到难过,所以几乎没有精力。 结果,他退缩了更多。 这使他更加难过。 这样,罗伯陷入了一个恶性循环。

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你的客户处于防御状态吗?如果是这样,自我肯定可能会有帮助

Posted Posted in Communication, Motivation, Self-affirmation, Self-efficacy

由英国萨塞克斯大学心理学院自我肯定研究小组的彼得·哈里斯(Peter Harris)和伊恩·哈登(Ian Hadden)共同撰稿

你曾经不愿意面对那些你宁愿忽略的事情吗?也许你喜欢经常性地吃一些对你有害的东西或者你倾向于避免健康体检?好吧,你并不是个例。我们大多数人都认为自己通常是非常聪明能干的人。因此,当我们被告知自己所做的事情并不真正明智或合格,可能会非常具有挑战性。 因此,我们可以非常熟练地抵制那些我们不愿听到的信息。

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成为一个更好的自己作为改变行为的理由

Posted Posted in Mental Imagery, Possible selves

温妮弗里德·格巴德(Winifred Gebhardt),莱顿大学,荷兰

大约在九年前,我一夜之间成了素食主义者。在我当时正在读的一本小说中,主人公解释了他为什么不能吃“在某个时候心脏一直在跳动”的东西。这几句话就像一道惊雷。我意识到这正是我的感受。于是我立刻停止吃肉和鱼,从那以后我就一直坚持这种新的饮食习惯。新的行为完全符合“我是谁”。

相反,过去我经常慢跑,能轻松跑7公里。然而,我从不认为自己是一个“爱运动的人”,每当遇到诸如生病之类的障碍时,我就变成了一个懒汉。我现在不再试图“运动”,而是尽可能在白天散步。我认为自己是个“活跃的人”。

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