Egon Dejonckheere & Peter Kuppens, KU Leuven, Belgium.
Many forms of counseling and psychotherapy still predominantly take place within the therapy room. Yet, once patients leave the therapy room, they sometimes struggle to face their challenges, seize opportunities to get better, and implement what they learned in session. Evidence shows that therapeutic practice can greatly benefit from having direct access to information about what takes place in people’s daily lives. Such information can identify ways to intervene, and effectively close the gap between counseling sessions and real life.
By Yael Benyamini, Tel Aviv University, Israel and Evangelos C. Karademas, University of Crete, Greece
Anna and Mary are both healthy 45-year-old women, living in a large European city. Each of them knows several people who have contracted COVID-19 and constantly hears and reads about it. Anna believes it is a very serious disease, and is very concerned that if she contracts it, even though she believes that given her age she will recover, she will probably suffer from long-term bothersome symptoms. She works from home as much as possible, never walks outside without a mask, and is waiting for the next dose of vaccination.
Bart Verkuil, Department of Clinical Psychology, Leiden University, The Netherlands and PEP Group, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
“What if I get infected and end up in the hospital?” “What if I can’t pay my bills in a few months?” “What effect will this lockdown have on my children’s the health?”
The threat of the coronavirus is having a huge impact on most of our lives. To determine what measures need to be taken and to estimate what risks we are facing, scientists use statistical models to gain insight into the spread of the virus. This surely helps to gain some control over this pandemic. Interestingly, we as individual human beings are continuously acting like these scientists, but in a more automatic manner; our human minds can be thought of as ‘prediction machines’, constantly estimating whether we are currently at risk of getting infected, losing our jobs or being criticized. Yet, there are large differences in how people estimate these risks and for some people these estimations spiral down to intense worries.
By G. Graffigna, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy
Healthcare professionals along the whole care journey must collaborate and coordinate their efforts for healthcare systems to function effectively. In other words, medicine requires teamwork to be successful. If we agree on this principle, then –adopting a sports metaphor –the patient too should be considered a player in the team!
The concept of patient engagement recognizes this, and it is an important ingredient for enhancing the effectiveness and sustainability of healthcare.
By Leah Avery, Teesside University, UK.
Type 2 diabetes was previously considered a progressive condition, with an inevitable need for insulin therapy, however lifestyle behavioural change research challenges this pessimistic prognosis. As prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase, so does evidence supporting the important role of the food and changing what we eat to successfully manage the condition.
Dietary approaches can largely be divided into two. Those that focus on what we eat (e.g., carbohydrates) to optimise metabolism and glycaemic control via slow and steady weight loss. Others that focus on the amount eaten, such as the low-calorie diet involving significant energy restriction for rapid weight loss.
By Wendy Lawrence, University of Southampton
오늘날 사회에서 사망 및 질병의 주요 원인들은 우리가 선택하는 생활 방식에 영향을 받습니다. 또한, 건강행동을 개선하려는 방법에 대한 관심도 증가하고 있습니다. 일선 실무자들, 특히 보건, 사회 및 지역 사회 돌봄 역할을 담당하는 사람들은, 행동 변화를 지원하는 핵심 자원입니다. 일상적인 면담 약속은 매주 행동 변화에 대한 대화를 시작할 기회를 제공하지만, 많은 실무자들은 행동변화를 유도하기 위한 면담(지원)을 제공하는데 필요한 지식과 기술이 부족하다고 느낍니다. 이런 감정은 흡연, 체중 감소 또는 음주와 같이 잠재적으로 민감한 주제에 대해 클라이언트나 환자와 대화하기 위한 실무자의 자신감을 감소시킬 수 있습니다.
By Barbara Mullan, Curtin University, Australia
Extent of the problem
Every year, one in 10 people worldwide (approximately 600 million people) become ill after eating contaminated food, and as many as 420,000 people die. There are vast geographical differences in where these instances occur, with African, South-East Asian, and Eastern Mediterranean regions bearing the highest burden of foodborne disease (further detail about the foodborne disease burden by region can be found here). In addition to these geographical differences, there are also vast differences in the types of agents that are responsible for foodborne disease (e.g., viruses, bacteria, parasites).
By Felix Naughton, University of East Anglia, UK
여성 흡연자의 25 ~ 50 %는 자신이 임신했음을 발견한 후 금연합니다. 그러나 나머지 여성들은 임신 기간 동안 계속 담배를 피웁니다. 왜 그럴까요?
그들은 임신 중 흡연이 해롭다는 사실을 모를까요? 아닙니다. 그들 대부분은 알고 있습니다. 금연 동기가 있고, 없는 두 부류의 임산부를 대상으로 한 영국의 한 연구에 따르면, 연구 참여자 중 99 %가 ‘임신 중 흡연은 아기에게 심각한 해를 끼칠 수 있다’는 말에 동의했으며, 약 75 %는 이 말에 상당히 또는 아주 동의한 것으로 나타났습니다. 그런데도 참여자 중 10 % 미만은 12 주 후에야 흡연을 자제했습니다. 금연을 시도할 가능성이 더 높은 집단은 임신 중 흡연이 ‘해를 끼친다는 생각’이 강한 사람들이기는 했지만, 그런 신념이 금연 성공의 가능성을 높이지는 않는 것으로 보입니다.
요약: 임신 중 흡연의 위험에 대한 믿음은 그저 미미한 역할을 합니다.
By Amy O’Donnell, Newcastle University, UK
Levels of drinking have fallen recently in some parts of Europe, particularly amongst young people. However, excessive alcohol consumption remains a major risk factor for poor health and early death. Providing simple brief advice to those identified as heavy drinkers can help reduce the amount of alcohol people consume, especially when delivered by primary care clinicians such as general practitioners (GPs) or nurses. Alcohol brief advice involves a short, evidence-based, structured conversation that aims to motivate and support a patient to consider a change in their drinking behaviour to reduce their risk of harm. We still haven’t fully identified the key ingredients of these conversations, but providing personalised feedback on a patient’s alcohol consumption, and encouraging them to self-monitor their drinking, seem to be particularly effective parts of the package.
By Dr Federica Picariello & Professor Rona Moss-Morris, King’s College London, the UK.
COVID-19 전염병의 결과로서 세계 곳곳에서 일상 생활은 몇 주 안에 크게 바뀌었고 불확실함이 우리의 미래를 장악해 버렸습니다. 빠르고 광범위한 행동 변화 (즉, 자가 격리, 사회적 거리 두기, 격리)를 통해 COVID-19의 확산을 즉각적으로 그리고 시급하게 늦추어야 한다는 점 외에도 COVID-19가 정신적, 신체적 안녕에 미치는 영향을 고려해야 하는데 이는 조기 개입을 가능하게 하고 장기적으로 나타나는 결과를 완화시키기 위해서 입니다.