Bart Verkuil, Department of Clinical Psychology, Leiden University, The Netherlands and PEP Group, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
“What if I get infected and end up in the hospital?” “What if I can’t pay my bills in a few months?” “What effect will this lockdown have on my children’s the health?”
The threat of the coronavirus is having a huge impact on most of our lives. To determine what measures need to be taken and to estimate what risks we are facing, scientists use statistical models to gain insight into the spread of the virus. This surely helps to gain some control over this pandemic. Interestingly, we as individual human beings are continuously acting like these scientists, but in a more automatic manner; our human minds can be thought of as ‘prediction machines’, constantly estimating whether we are currently at risk of getting infected, losing our jobs or being criticized. Yet, there are large differences in how people estimate these risks and for some people these estimations spiral down to intense worries.
By G. Graffigna, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy
Healthcare professionals along the whole care journey must collaborate and coordinate their efforts for healthcare systems to function effectively. In other words, medicine requires teamwork to be successful. If we agree on this principle, then –adopting a sports metaphor –the patient too should be considered a player in the team!
The concept of patient engagement recognizes this, and it is an important ingredient for enhancing the effectiveness and sustainability of healthcare.
By Leah Avery, Teesside University, UK.
Type 2 diabetes was previously considered a progressive condition, with an inevitable need for insulin therapy, however lifestyle behavioural change research challenges this pessimistic prognosis. As prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase, so does evidence supporting the important role of the food and changing what we eat to successfully manage the condition.
Dietary approaches can largely be divided into two. Those that focus on what we eat (e.g., carbohydrates) to optimise metabolism and glycaemic control via slow and steady weight loss. Others that focus on the amount eaten, such as the low-calorie diet involving significant energy restriction for rapid weight loss.
By Wendy Lawrence, University of Southampton
The main causes of death and disease in society today are influenced by our lifestyle choices, and there is a growing focus on ways to improve health behaviours. Front-line practitioners, particularly those working in health, social and community care roles, are a key resource for supporting behavioural change. Routine appointments offer opportunities to initiate conversations about behaviour change every week, but many practitioners feel that they lack the knowledge and skills necessary to provide behaviour change support. This can reduce our confidence for having conversations with clients or patients about potentially sensitive topics, including smoking, weight loss or alcohol intake.
By Barbara Mullan, Curtin University, Australia
Extent of the problem
Every year, one in 10 people worldwide (approximately 600 million people) become ill after eating contaminated food, and as many as 420,000 people die. There are vast geographical differences in where these instances occur, with African, South-East Asian, and Eastern Mediterranean regions bearing the highest burden of foodborne disease (further detail about the foodborne disease burden by region can be found here). In addition to these geographical differences, there are also vast differences in the types of agents that are responsible for foodborne disease (e.g., viruses, bacteria, parasites).
By Felix Naughton, University of East Anglia, UK
Between 25-50% of female smokers quit smoking after they discover they are pregnant. But why do the remainder continue to smoke throughout their pregnancy?
Do they not know that smoking during pregnancy is harmful? They usually do. One of our UK studies, that included pregnant women both motivated and unmotivated to quit, found 99% agreed to some degree with the statement ‘smoking during pregnancy can cause serious harm to my baby’ with around 75% agreeing very much or extremely. Yet less than 10% of them were abstinent 12 weeks later. While making a quit attempt is more likely among those with strong ‘harm beliefs’ about smoking in pregnancy, it does not appear to increase the chances of success.
By Amy O’Donnell, Newcastle University, UK
Levels of drinking have fallen recently in some parts of Europe, particularly amongst young people. However, excessive alcohol consumption remains a major risk factor for poor health and early death. Providing simple brief advice to those identified as heavy drinkers can help reduce the amount of alcohol people consume, especially when delivered by primary care clinicians such as general practitioners (GPs) or nurses. Alcohol brief advice involves a short, evidence-based, structured conversation that aims to motivate and support a patient to consider a change in their drinking behaviour to reduce their risk of harm. We still haven’t fully identified the key ingredients of these conversations, but providing personalised feedback on a patient’s alcohol consumption, and encouraging them to self-monitor their drinking, seem to be particularly effective parts of the package.
Napisali Dr Federica Picariello i Rona Moss-Morris, King’s College London, UK.
U roku od par tjedana, na čitavoj planeti svakodnevni život drastično se i dramatično promijenio uslijed COVID-19 pandemije, te je određena neizvjesnost obavila ljudsku budućnost. Uz potrebu da se hitno uspori širenje bolesti COVID-19 putem brzih i kolektivnih bihevioralnih promjena (npr., samoizolacija, socijalna distanca i karantena), potrebno je sagledati i teret koji je nastao na mentalnu i fizičku dobrobit kako bi se uspješno provele rane intervencije i smanjile dugoročne posljedice.
Napisala Dominika Kwasnicka, Sveučilište SWPS, Poljska i Sveučilište Curtin, Australija
Krajnji cilj programa za promicanje zdravlja je potaknuti dugoročne promjene, u čemu sudjeluju i zdravstveni djelatnici time što pomažu poboljšati zdravstvene ishode pacijenata, kao i održavati promjene u ponašanju. Znamo kako je teško potaknuti ponašanja koja promiču zdravlje, te kako je još zahtjevnije održavati to dugoročno. Stoga se nameće važno pitanje u području zdravstvene psihologije, a to je zašto je održavanje ponašanja koja promiču zdravlje tako teško?
Prestani biti noj! Prednosti pomaganja ljudima u praćenju vlastitog napretka
Kako napredujete sa vlastitim ciljem da smanjite unos šećera koji inače konzumirate i izgubite 10 kilograma? Velike su šanse da uistinu ne znate- ili čak ne želite znati. U situacijama kao što je ova, ljudi imaju tendenciju ponašati se poput nojeva i zatrpati svoju glavu pod pijesak, namjerno izbjegavajući i odbijajući informacije koje bi im pomogle da nadziru napredak svog cilja. Istraživanje o ovom „problemu s nojem” sugerira da ljudi često ne prate svoj napredak (npr. provjeravaju kilograme koračajući na vagu, čitaju ambalažu hrane koju kupuju) dijelom jer se time mogu osjećati loše prema sebi- npr. shvaćaju da teže više nego su se nadali te da i dalje konzumiraju previše šećera. Međutim, teorija i dokazi upućuju na to da praćenje vlastitog napretka pomaže ljudima da uvide razlike između trenutnog i željenog stanja koja zahtijevaju djelovanje. Ono što se ovim nastoji implicirati jest da izbjegavanje praćenja otežava prepoznavanje potrebe za djelovanjem i pronalaskom najadekvatnijeg načina za istim. Stoga, problem sa nojem predstavlja priliku zdravstvenim djelatnicima (a i ostalima) da pomognu ljudima nadzirati vlastiti napredak i izvući korist iz toga. U tom slučaju, pak, nije iznenađujuće što smo pronašli kvalitetne dokaze da poticanje ljudi da prate vlastiti napredak pomaže ljudima u postizanju ciljeva u različitim domenama.