Važnost procjene klijentovih strategija suočavanja

Posted Posted in Assessment, Coping

Nadia Garnefski i Vivian Kraaij, Odjel za kliničku psihologiju, Sveučilište

u Leidenu, Nizozemska

„Rob je upravo saznao da ima HIV (negativan događaj). Smatra da je on osobno za to kriv (samookrivljavanje) i izbjegava se vidjeti sa svojim prijateljima (povlačenje). Cijela ova situacija ga čini tužnim. Za vrijeme boravka kod kuće, ne može prestati razmišljati o vlastitim osjećajima (ruminacija) i vjeruje da to što mu se dogodilo predstavlja potpunu katastrofu (katastrofiziranje). Budući da se osjeća tužnim, ima malo energije. Kao rezultat toga, povlači se još više. To ga čini još tužnijim. Na ovaj je način Rob postepeno psihički „potonuo“.“

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Zauzimaju li Vaši klijenti obrambeni stav? U takvim prilikama, samoafirmacija može pomoći.

Posted Posted in Communication, Motivation, Self-affirmation, Self-efficacy

Peter Harris i Ian Hadden, The Self-Affirmation Research Group, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, UK

Jeste li se ikada oklijevali suočiti s nečim što biste radije ignorirali? To može biti sklonost nečemu lošem što jedete prečesto ili sklonost izbjegavanju zdravstvenih pregleda? Niste jedini. Većina nas misli da smo uglavnom prilično razumni i kompetentni. Stoga, čuti da  nešto što radimo nije razumno ili kompetentno, može biti prilično izazovno. Kao rezultat, možemo biti prilično vješti u pružanju otpora takvim porukama koje ne želimo čuti.

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Promjenom ponašanja do boljeg ‘ja’

Posted Posted in Mental Imagery, Possible selves

Winifred Gebhardt, Sveučilište Leiden , Nizozemska

Prije otprilike devet godina, preko noći sam postao vegeterijanac. U romanu koji sam čitao, glavni junak objasnio je kako ne može ništa jesti, “pri čemu mi je ponekad tuklo srce”. Poput munje su me te riječi pogodile.. Shvatio sam da se upravo tako osjećam. Odmah sam prestao jesti meso i ribu i od tada nisam imao problema sa pridržavanjem za ovu novu prehranu. Novo ponašanje savršeno je odgovaralo “osobi koja jesam”.

Suprotno tome, u prošlosti sam redovito trčao i sa lakoćom sam mogao trčati sedam kilometara. Međutim, sebe nikada nisam smatrao “sportskom osobom”, a kad god bi se stvorila prepreka poput bolesti, zalegao bih na kauč ispred tv-a. Sada više ne pokušavam biti “sportski tip”, već hodam kad god mogu tijekom dana. Smatram sebe “aktivnom osobom”.

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Jedno od n-tih istraživanja: Što možemo naučiti istraživanjem pojedinog slučaja?

Posted Posted in Assessment, Interventions

Autori: Marie Johnston i Derek Johnston,  Sveučilište u Aberdeenu, Škotska

Uvod

Stručnjaci iz prakse često žele dati odgovor na problem koji se odnosi na jednog pojedinca,  tim zdravstvenih djelatnika, određenu bolnicu, regiju i slično. Na primjer, možda bi bila važna informacija koliko često pretila osoba jede grickalice, gdje i kada ih jede te  pojačava li stres zapravo jedenje grickalica. S druge strane možda želite saznati koliko često članovi zdravstvenog tima zanemaruju higijenu ruku i ako se ona u većem stupnju zanemaruju kada ima premalo osoblja za obavljanje posla te ako oglasi na odjelima smanjuju zanemarivanje. Ili pak možete istraživati izvore grešaka u radu kliničara kako biste provjerili je li pojava grešaka učestalija na određenim odjelima ili kod određenih redova osoblja. Na političkoj razini također bi moglo biti od koristi istražiti ako nova regulacija, kao što je zabrana pušenja na javnim površinama, utječe na vjerojatnost pušenja.

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Fizička aktivnost u starijoj dobi: koliko je dovoljno?

Posted Posted in Goal setting, Motivational interviewing, Self-monitoring

Autorica: Anne Tiedemann, Sveučilište u Sydney-u, Australija

“Nedostatak aktivnosti uništava dobru kondiciju svakog ljudskog bića, dok ju kretanje i metodičke fizičke vježbe čuvaju i održavaju”…Platon, 400. pr.Kr.

Oduvijek je bilo poznato kako je redovita fizička aktivnost važna za naše zdravlje i blagostanje. No, poruke koje promoviraju zdrav način života često su usmjerene na djecu i mlade, dok se nedostatan fokus stavlja na značaj fizičke aktivnosti za ljude starije od 65 godina. Međutim, u starijoj je dobi od presudne važnosti uključivanje tjelesne aktivnosti u svakodnevicu.

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Raising weight in a consultation

Posted Posted in Communication

By Jane Ogden, University of Surrey, UK

Weight is a tricky problem to talk about in a consultation. Some patients may be sick of hearing the words ‘You could lose some weight’ every time they visit the clinic: regardless of whether they have come in because of a sore throat, a cervical smear or a potential heart problem. They may have experienced a lifetime of feeling stigmatised by the medical profession and think that all anyone ever sees is their body size. While this is so for some individuals, others may have never considered their weight as an issue, and could be insulted or surprised if it is raised. Some people may simply not want to hear the message and block out whatever is said, thinking for example ‘what do you know – you’re thin / fat / too young / too old’ or ‘science is always wrong.’ Raising the issue of weight therefore requires careful management of ‘when,’ ‘how’ and ‘what’ is said to an overweight person.

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Self-efficacy: The “can-do” belief that lets people change their lifestyles

Posted Posted in Motivation, Self-efficacy

By Ralf Schwarzer, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany and SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland

Changing behavior may often be desirable but difficult to do. For example, quitting smoking, eating healthily and sticking to a physical exercise regimen all require motivation, effort, and persistence. While many psychological factors play a role in behavior change, self-efficacy is one of the most important.

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Telling stories about caring for others

Posted Posted in Social Support

By Irina Todorova, Health Psychology Research Center in Sofia, Bulgaria

Taking care of aging loved ones, who are perhaps in frail health, can be a complicated and confusing experience that is both gratifying and frustrating. Medical science is helping people live longer, healthier lives, and in some cases can slow down the cognitive decline that frequently come with age. The way that families care for older members, as well as the meaning of aging, dementia and caregiving varies across cultural contexts. Most people are aging at home as members of their communities, which has psychosocial benefits for the older person as well as for the different generations of family members. At the same time, caring for people with declining health is accompanied with physical effort, psychological strain, grief related to ongoing loss and possibly financial difficulties for the caregiver. (more…)

Motivation and the first steps toward physical activity

Posted Posted in Goal setting, Motivation, Self-regulation

By Keegan Knittle, University of Helsinki, Finland

Here’s a familiar story from primary care: an individual who would clearly benefit from more physical activity comes into the clinic. We discuss their physical (in)activity, and in the end, the person says they just aren’t motivated to change. What’s a clinician supposed to do? How can we motivate this person to at least consider changing their behavior for the better? Or better yet, how can we help them to form good intentions for being active?

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Positive psychology interventions at work

Posted Posted in Intervention design, Interventions

By Alexandra Michel, Federal Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, Germany and Annekatrin Hoppe, Humboldt Universität, Germany

Employees spend a major part of their waking time at work. It is no surprise then that reducing demands and increasing resources (e.g., autonomy, social support, self-efficacy) at work are important in promoting employees’ work-life balance, well-being and health. Over the last years, research has examined not only ways to repair the negative consequences of work stress, but also ways to promote resources to improve employees’ well-being at work. Especially, introducing positive psychology interventions to the workplace is a new avenue in the occupational health psychology field. Positive psychology interventions focus on building resources and preventing resource loss, and include activities that aim to cultivate positive feelings, behaviors and cognitions. In this blog post, we highlight three approaches that can help employees to build their resources and foster well-being at work.

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