单病例随机对照试验:通过研究单个案例,我们能学到什么?

Posted Posted in Assessment, Interventions

由来自苏格兰阿伯丁大学的玛丽·约翰斯顿(Marie Johnston)和德里克·约翰斯顿(Derek Johnston)撰稿 从业者经常想要得到针对一个人、一个医疗团队、一家医院或一个地区等问题的答案。例如,了解一个肥胖的男人多久吃一次零食,何时何地吃零食,以及压力是否会使情况变得更糟可能是很重要的。或者你可能想知道医疗团队成员忽略手卫生,频率如果他们人手不足时是否情况会更糟,还有,病房的宣传是否对这种情况有所改善。或者您可能正在调查临床错误的来源,以检查这些错误在某些病房或某些级别的工作人员中是否更常见。或者,在政策层面上,调查一项新的规定,比如公共场所的禁烟令是否影响了吸烟率,可能是很有价值的。 你可以试着通过询问人们的想法或记忆来回答这些问题,但最好在关键时刻和地点提出或观察,以避免偏见和遗忘的问题。最近的技术进步,如使用智能手机进行数字监控,使得实时跟踪正在发生的事情变得更加容易,一项单病例随机对照试验的研究为你回答问题提供了可能性。 当问题可以反复评估以观察随时间的变化时,可以进行单病例随机对照试验的研究。然后我们可以描述这个问题,并检验在某些条件下它是好是坏。或者可以引入新的干预或治疗,并评估其是否具有所预期的效果。 对所收集数据的最简单评估是观察图表上的趋势,如下图所示。这是任何单病例随机对照试验分析中的一个重要步骤,并且是非常充分的。此外,还有更多用于单病例随机对照试验研究的统计分析方法。更复杂的方法还在继续发展(例如,评估动态变化的方法)。 Please follow and like us:

Positive psychology interventions at work

Posted Posted in Intervention design, Interventions

By Alexandra Michel, Federal Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, Germany and Annekatrin Hoppe, Humboldt Universität, Germany Employees spend a major part of their waking time at work. It is no surprise then that reducing demands and increasing resources (e.g., autonomy, social support, self-efficacy) at work are important in promoting employees’ work-life balance, well-being and […]

Move more, sit less at work: let’s not sit to talk about it

Posted Posted in Interventions, Social Support

By Stuart Biddle, University of Southern Queensland, Australia I’m writing this blog on Valentine’s Day! The health promotion charity in Australia, Bluearth, has produced some amusing videos encouraging you to use your chair less by ‘breaking up with your chair’ (liking splitting from your partner, see videos here). So what is the issue here? Essentially, […]

Social support and health behavior: How to move from well-intentioned to skilled support

Posted Posted in Interventions, Social Support

By Urte Scholz, University of Zurich and Gertraud (Turu) Stadler, University of Aberdeen Social support seems to be an exclusively positive thing. What can be bad about a little help? Having someone who cooks healthy meals when you try to eat better, or being comforted when you feel down because your recent attempt at quitting […]

Very Brief Interventions

Posted Posted in Interventions

By Stephen Sutton, University of Cambridge, England Large-scale problems require large-scale solutions. Tackling the ‘Big 4’ behaviours (physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive consumption of food and alcohol) requires scalable interventions that can reach large numbers of people to achieve a significant public health impact. One promising approach is to use brief interventions delivered by practitioners […]

Harnessing your imagination: Using the power of mental imagery to change health behaviour

Posted Posted in If-Then Plans, Interventions, Mental Imagery, Planning

Martin S. Hagger, Curtin University, Australia and University of Jyväskylä, Finland and Dominic Conroy, Birkbeck University of London, UK What is mental imagery? People are usually quite good at imagining things. For example, people often act out future actions or scenarios in their mind, or daydream about fanciful possibilities. These imagined situations are often unstructured […]

E-health: hypes and hopes

Posted Posted in E-health, Interventions

Rik Crutzen, Maastricht University, The Netherlands Nowadays, people use the Internet all the time and for a wide range of activities: from buying groceries to showing a funny cat-picture to a friend on the other side of the world. It is all possible. Also, the Internet is used more and more within the domain of health […]